First floor


Lithuanian brick castles are the highlights of this exposition hall. There are paintings in the donjon niches depicting some of the most important monuments of the Lithuanian architecture in the 14th and 15th centuries: the ensemble of Vilnius castles, and the castles of Medininkai, Kaunas, Krėva and Trakai.

These castles represent the development of masonary during the first centuries of the Lithuanian Grand Duchy. Their locations are indicated in the copy of Gerardus Mercator’s map.

Brick, ceramic, mortars

In the glass showcases you will see the findings from Medininkai Castle archaeological research of 2010-2011, variuos sets of bricks. Also mortars from Trakai Historical Museum and private collections are in the center of the hall. Domestic pottery and tile fragments were found during the archaeological research, and date back to the end of the 16th – 19th century). Bricks were used for walls and corners, for the openings of gates, doors and windows, decor of castle towers, facades, vaults, parapets with archery openings, and gate and window lintels. Brick and stone used to be bound with lime mortar. The aggregate contained ceramic crumbs and clay. In Lithuania, the technique and structures of the oldest brickwork developed under the influence of the Western Europe and partly Russian architectural tradition. It is therefore no surprise that you will see these traditions in the Lithuanian bricks, mortars, boulders.


In the middle of the hall you will admire ancient canons found in Lithuania, and one replica cannon. Colubrines in the castle date back to the second half of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century. Most likely, these canons were made in Holy Roman Empire. Their caliber is 65-100 mm. Also exhibited is the serpentine replica from the 15th century to the beginning of the 16th century. Serpentines (serpentine meaning a snake) were the first light field artillery cannons. They appeared in France at the end of the Hundred Years War (at about 1430), and subsequently spread throughout Europe. It is believed that they have been made not only in Poland but also in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.